Will This Be on the Test? Transcripts
Hi everybody and welcome to Will This Be On the Test? I'm
Maddie. I'm Austin, I think often lost his notes. I didn't lose my notes just lost my place.
This is why I do it all digitally, the cloud puts everything exactly where I want it.
But where's the heart, this soul the waste of paper?
See, I must not hate trees as much as you do.
But trees are the worst. They make leaves in the yard. And it's like, oh, they provide us with oxygen. Big whoop.
I read a bunch of those worst reviews of national parks and one of them was the trees blocked to
the view. And I think the rocks were all gray.
That's fine. It's actually usually the opposite of our conversation. I'm the one who actually hates nature because I'm allergic to everything.
You really are allergic to everything. Like we were in just a mildly dusty place. And it was bad.
Oh gosh. And like just last week, I was just a constant. I was scratching my torso to the point where I was blowing Eating. And then I finally figured out Oh, I just switched back to a detergent that I used about two months ago. Must be allergic to it now. And sure enough, that's what it was. Oh my
god, it was really bad. Like, yeah,
well and top of that it's been quite the week I had my birthday. Yeah, I was old as he is now.
Unknown Speaker 1:19
I don't know. We went and saw the play puffs. It was awesome. Yeah, Austin's a Hufflepuff. I am
and I'm a southern so he said that he had never felt more seen. I don't know how much longer it's running at the coterie theater but if you are in Kansas City area and you get a chance and your Harry Potter person, it is a fun one. Go see
it. I enjoyed it. It's like I am not a threat. Please be my friend.
And we were going to get a melting pot afterwards. But then I suddenly didn't have a reservation for like an hour and a half and I'm like off, they're busy. I don't want to have to Plaza when they're busy. And then we'll drove by another restaurant we're going to go to and the parking lot was full Like, we don't want to deal with that either. Basically, that gives you the summary of exactly the kind of people we are, if anything is mildly inconvenient, especially when it comes to parking our cars, we just won't do it.
It's like we eventually got like, you know, carry out and but the problem is we're both very responsible adults and had not eaten that entire day. And this was like seven o'clock at night. So I like made something really fast and we ordered food and it was awesome. Then we talked about how we need to eat healthier as we are cramming french fries into our faces.
We're good french fries though. We are gonna start eating healthier though. It's just one of those things that we go through phases like everybody else, I think where we're really good about it and then we stopped being good about it.
It's like you want to eat healthy all the time because then you can't have buffalo wings. I think if you're
doing it right, you can still have buffalo wings. I don't know. Okay, awesome. This is difference between them being able to have buffalo wings and still eat healthfully and me allowing you to have buffalo wings. I don't follow you
because I eat all of the buffalo Does eat all of buffalo wings? Then she yells at me for eating buffalo wings. It's like awesome. What do you think that's buffalo wings. It's like, it was the only one I had it.
She buffaloes. me. Oh my God. and today is daylight savings. And I don't I have a I have insomnia. But as I'm going to get up this morning, I'm going to finish up my research because I need to put the color into it because right then it was just like all the facts, and then we're gonna record and it'll be great. I didn't get up too much later than my alarm went off. Like I was like, Okay, I'm awake. I'm awake. I'm gonna get up. I got up I took a shower. I finished the thing. And then I realized that my tablet was was dying. And like, I'll plug that in for a few minutes. And then the next thing I knew it was three hours later. Yep, she just fell asleep. Yeah, I fell asleep. I had the blanket pulled over my head like I definitely did not want any fucking part of this daylight savings bullshit. And
you know, daylight savings is bullshit. Come on. It serves no purpose. It just makes everybody grumpy for a few weeks. There's a everyone's schedule. It confuses our cats like to no end.
Yet it increases the number of heart attacks and car accidents. And when I was a teacher we lost usually about a week of instructional time because we already have proof that school starts too early for teenagers. This makes it start an hour earlier for so for at least a week, maybe two. Even my best students my best I mean the I mean that in the traditional sense, where they would, you know, come to school ready to learn blah, blah, blah. Even they'd be completely glazed over because their bodies just couldn't handle it and it's not fair to them. Also, I fell asleep while driving during daylight savings.
That's really not good.
Yep. But I remember teachers got to be there like an hour earlier than the kids.
On the bright side, though. Sounds they've they've had a case of coronavirus around us. Mm hmm. So I'm looking forward to a really slow week at work as no one tries to go to a public place.
I'm not too worried about it because based on what it's Sounds like this person had been on vacation and then has just been hanging out their family so they haven't gone anywhere.
Oh my gosh someone I work with is just on vacation came back we came back. Do you think it was her or him?
Unknown Speaker 5:11
I'm going to go wash my hands and put on a breathing mask.
I actually did think we had a co worker out of town and like what coast did they go to but it was the other one.
Honestly guys though, we're not washing your hands before now. What's the deal and why is all the Why is all the bottled water and toilet paper gone at Costco? like am I missing something is like is bottled water the cure?
No, the cure is the cure. I can't
think of any cure songs off the
top of my head. Why is all the soap suddenly gone from the stores were you guys not using this what is happening with that?
Everyone knows when you wash your hands, you go and you grab the nearest child and you rub your hands on their hair, the friction plus the greasy stickiness of children after the
soap Awesome. Have you seen our stash of soap? We've got a lot of stuff. Yeah, I was raised to always take the soap with you and he leave a hotel. And we just like Ross Geller.
I don't take everything from the hotel where he's like, ooh, the light bulb is mine. That's just a route that's adding extra work that the housekeeping staff that would otherwise not have to do. They're going to replace the soap and stuff anyway. So we have like this shelf completely full of soap. So if you're eating so we're charging about 50 bucks apiece for the hotel soaps 100 bucks apiece for the full size stuff. 150 for the guests soaps, but they haven't been used.
We have a very fancy guests soap. It's shaped like a seashell.
We actually might have a seashell one I know. Oh god rose ones.
I did you always have like the soap and towels that you weren't allowed. Oh, yes, they were they were for guests. Oh, and then when guests would come they would not use the fancy soap because it was too fancy to be used.
Exactly. The guests soap and stuff doesn't make any sense. Nobody is comfortable using it. Just clean your hands. That's all you want. And you're supposed to clean them for at least 20 seconds, I decided to actually see how long would washing my hands for it was, and I'm pretty fastidious if it had not been 20 seconds. So my new thing is trying to name all 50 states before I'm allowed to rinse my hands.
But you can't even do that in 10 minutes. We've tried this.
Hey, I think I'm down to about 45 seconds now. Yeah, I get I get at least 43 of them usually 47 it was one of those things that I never actually had to memorize in school, so it never came up. And now at my job, I have to list out states a lot. I really just make a document where I copy and paste it. But where's the fun in that? So hear that kids states and capitals do come in handy eventually. Maybe Don't get me started on state capitals. I couldn't know very many of them. We discovered last week or two weeks ago that New Hampshire doesn't exist. I could
not name a single city in New Hampshire.
No, we were at the office trivia and it was like to what New Hampshire brands and we're like oh shit, I think
we already talked about this. You might have an M As you can tell, we are running out of material because we are really boring people.
It's daylight savings. I think if I had
our brains are broken by a arbitrary change of time, whoever is running for president because clearly, like we don't even know anymore. We don't even know it's Bedlam out there. Bernie Biden. Lauren
Tulsi still in. She's got
a she's got one delicate from American Samoa. And if things go absolutely crazy, she says chance.
I feel like Tulsi has also forgotten that she's running and that's why she hasn't officially dropped out.
Well, Tulsi is too busy trying to find donations to make her new fur coat.
I was thinking she was looking for a young baby to start sucking the life out of and turning her hair blonde so she could stay young. I want to be
forever young. So yeah,
it looks like it's down to Biden and Bernie, which is like not unexpected, unfortunately.
Yeah, I was a big Warren fan. But you know what? I've come to the realization that even though Warren is my favorite, I like all of you. With the exception of Tulsi Gabbard and I'm a little iffy on Mayor Pete and Amy Klobuchar. I dislike everybody. It's true, but you just dislike everybody. I'm a Hufflepuff. I make friends you're a slithering you are acknowledged as evil now and I guess we can send you to the dungeons.
I just, I just wanted someone with a plan is also experienced. I don't see the problem with that. But at least we know where Bernie's been for the last three years where the fuck has Joe been? He's been on vacation. See, that's the thing. Bernie's like, Oh shit. There's a problem in Washington. And Bernie and just like, I'm going to the
Bahamas. Joe Biden was like, I'm just gonna ride the rails of Amtrak across America. Like so. Like, I think he was solving crimes with brock obama, according to that one documentary I read. I read that too. So speaking of like, you know, building brilliant people with plans. I've got someone this weekend to talk about, Okay. Who you haven't heard of, you probably shouldn't hear about has impacted Did virtually every part of life on Earth in incredible ways.
So why shouldn't we have heard about them?
Because he's an inventor and all of his inventions were bad. Not like normal bad. We're talking like end of the world bad, but it's impacted everything. Yeah, his name was Thomas Midgley Jr. Okay. So he was an again, you've never heard of him. He was born in 1889. And he graduated with an engineering degree from Cornell in 1911. started work for GM. And in 1921, he discovered that tetra f OLED prevented engine knock, okay, which basically and like, you know, like when you're watching a movie and like the car breaks down and it starts to like, sputter and make weird little like clicking and clunk noises. That's what engine Nakia so this is an agent that stops that they also discovered that ethanol, which was just like alcohol worked better in ethanol is what we use now. But GM couldn't patent and make money off of ethanol. So they started pushing tetra ethyl lead is the thing, but they'd only call it ethyl because everyone knew that lead was poisonous. So this new gas additive, they made a ton of money off of it. And he actually Midgley won an award in 1923 from the American Chemical Society. And then he went on vacation to Florida because he was suffering from lead poisoning.
Florida does carrier lead poisoning
it's true. I mean, it's like you wouldn't it's got disney world there is zero lead in Disney World
you know how there's always all those Florida man stories. Yeah, I read one yesterday that you would have appreciated what you were asleep on the couch. It was Florida man gets caught by police after chase because he stopped to pet cat.
I would oh my gosh, this is why we need police cats. They can stop these chases. running them down. It's like oh my god kitty cat and they scoop the kitty cat. And then like the kitties like gotcha and they handcuff us
Unknown Speaker 11:53
with their dexterity,
shockingly, our cats have opinions Draco was immediately in my lap. Trying to be on the podcast I had to throw him. And now fezzik is up here being surly.
He was sitting right here and purring and then Greg will come up behind him startled him from behind the blanket.
This is so the invention of leaded gasoline was really bad. And I'm going to tell you why it was so bad because when this lead additive was burned, it put lead particles into the air. So everywhere there was exhaust, gasoline exhaust, there was lead being put in the air. We know LEDs been toxic since about 1850. And but they thought it would be fine because nobody was drinking gasoline prove it. I mean, outside of the Florida actually a DuPont chemical executive said that described tetra f OLED as a colorless liquid of Swedish odor, and very poisonous if absorbed through the skin, resulting in lead poisoning almost immediately.
Okay, I know you meant Swedish odor, but I heard Swedish odor. The
Swedish odor is pretty Swedish.
It smells like you is what you're saying.
Yeah, I'm very sweet. You smell like gasoline? I do smell like, okay. You're so mean. I think the lesson we're learning today is that Matt he's just really mean to me and
we're just teaching the kids out there what marriage is really like
marriage is just your wife being mean to you until eventually you embrace the sweet sweet taste of death. The Swedish Swedish taste of death, it tastes like tetra athlet. And in fact, speaking of the Swedish taste in five refinery workers died of lead poisoning in 1923 from working with this new additive, so they launched a like inquiry into the safety of it. It was done entirely by GM and let me quote directly from their findings Actually, this is the quote this is just me
sorry let me guess they just wrote the radium girls things down change them yeah,
it's a lot like radium girls. They knew led exposure was hired anyone who is around cars or worked in cars, but decided that it was within acceptable levels. They did find left lots of lead residue in garages. And just around anywhere where a car was running, but it was low enough to be tolerated. And this is a direct quote from the from the report, they called it a another generations problem. So all of this lead build up, it's fine for now. We'll make our kids clean it up. This is cool.
Yeah, at least they were open about it. Like, unlike the last couple of generations,
there was a lot of like outcry over time about this. But again, all of the Regulation and Safety and like reporting on it was done within the industry. All the problems were covered up, there was just enough lobbyists that no one in the government ever really worked on it. Even though hundreds of thousands of tons of lead were put into the air. And it really wasn't the the generations problem, even though we started to notice the extra lead in the 1940s and 50s, a geologist named Claire Cameron Patterson, who was the guy even though his name was Claire, just gonna clarify that Claire, the five that didn't even mean to do that,
to be embarrassed,
was trying to determine the geological age of the Earth using radioactive rocks, but there was so much less in the air, it was containing the samples and he could not successfully determine how old the earth was using these methods. He also noticed that there was lots of lead and ice cores. But the higher lead levels from the samples were starting around the time that tetra FLN was being used in gasoline. So there was a market increase in lead from the leaded gas lobby claimed that lead levels were normal, but lead had become so prevalent through leaded gasoline, that normal levels were actually insanely, just incredibly high. When they finally like we're going to court with this. They use bone samples from corpses they found from about 600 years ago, their lead levels in their bones were 700 to 1200 times lower than modern people. We had 700 to 12,000 1200 times more lead in our bodies than people did before we started using leaded gasoline. So the normal level that they were saying, was actually incredibly heightened.
It's actually amazing what you can accept as normal because too Then that probably was kind of a normal level, but it's just what it is. That's what we're around all the time. So this has to be normal. Yeah. It's kind of like, you know, you switch from one job to another and what your first job is really stressful and all the time. And you just assume all jobs are really, really stressful all the time. And then you get to your next job, and you're not constantly stressed. And he realized, Oh, wait, that wasn't normal. That wasn't the way it was supposed to be. So this was them looking back at these old buttons going, wait a second, this wasn't normal. This is the way it was supposed to be.
Yeah, it is estimated that 68 million children were exposed to toxic levels of lead between 1980 1927 and 1986.
And similar things are still happening
in the country and more things are still happening. There was actually a very comprehensive study done in New Zealand of outcomes of children over time, and they found that kids were living closer to roads and were exposed to more lead had just universally worse, worse outcomes. They were lower intelligence, lower wages just lower health than kids who are living further away from roads.
So that probably meant that that probably like fed into the whole the city life is bad for you thing that we talked about a few times that people were saying cities cause you all these problems and people in the cities are worse. Except for you know, if there were actually, you know, people with larger problems there. It's because of us.
Yeah. It's also been tied to rises in violent behavior.
Oh, yeah. So people in cities when we're saying it's that city life No, it's the fact that we ignored the lead poisoning.
It's just people who lived around anything that burn gas, gasoline, which is all cities, all cities and just everywhere. So America did finally ban leaded gas in 1975 for new vehicles and all the gasoline sales completely by 1986. But you want to hear the reason why, why it wasn't because of lead exposure. It was because there was a lot of people, you know, speaking out against light exposure, but the actual reason was, they had made new emission standards vehicles that included the catalytic converter and leaded gasoline, gummed up catalytic converters and broke them down. So for the catalytic converted to work, we had to stop using leaded gasoline. And that's the only reason they got rid of it.
I think it's interesting that we still call regular gasoline. unleaded. Yes, there is I don't I always assume diesel gasoline will have led in it.
Yeah, just unleaded means that it doesn't have tetra athlet in it does use ethanol, which works better. It's been banned in roads, road vehicles in most industrial countries since since around the year 2000. England still allows it and because classical car enthusiasts lobbied against the government to continue to allow its sale,
they wouldn't just Brexit their way off there.
Yeah, so that might explain Brexit Actually, it's like, sure he's killing children and making everything worse, but he really enjoys his old Rolls Royce. So what are we going to do?
What's funny is we live around a whole time we live near a classic car Museum, you know that right? It's kind of hidden, I'll tell you and nobody's complaining about it. They've had to, like alter the engines, I'm sure. Yeah, but nobody's like, man, I sure wish I could still have lead poisoning.
Yeah, it's like you can alter the engines on these classic cars. Just for people who don't want to for whatever reason, around here, everyone who's driving one of those cars has altered the engine so they'll run with unleaded gasoline. Of course, it's still used in lots of third world countries, and like poor places like Afghanistan, North Korea, but most of the world is banned. However, it is still allowed in aviation fuel for propeller planes. Uh huh. And children who live near airports do have a noticeably higher level of lead in their blood than children who don't live by airports because of this.
Now, are we talking about like commercial airlines? We're talking about private jets that have little propellers on them,
just like little propeller planes, okay. Yeah, commercial airlines don't use leaded gasoline. Okay, so yay, leaded gasoline, and that leaded gasoline also wasn't his only invention. Ah, he also invented Freon, also known as chlorofluorocarbons, or CFC CFC and also has to do with cars. It does. It's used in like it's a refrigerant. They use it for refrigerators and air conditioning, but not anymore.
Yeah. I was thinking It's something to do with keeping things cold.
It's a refrigerant. It's it was actually a pretty good refrigerant because it was non toxic and non flammable, which shrink it which hilariously early refrigerators. The stuff they use as a refrigerant was toxic or flammable or could explode. So this fix the problems of your refrigerator just catching fire and exploding for no goddamn reason.
Did it fix the problem or just fix one of the causes of the problem? Because you know, my friends just keeps telling me it's going to explode.
Are you still keeping dynamite in the refrigerator? Why do you keep dynamite in the refrigerator? It says Store at room temperature right there on the box. He felt how
cold our houses
actually it's really, really warm in here.
Unknown Speaker 20:40
It's really hot right now because it's 70 degrees out in March. Yay global warming,
which we'll get into that very soon. Oh, great. his invention of Freon replaced a bunch of other deadly refrigerants and was later started to use an aerosol cans and inhalers as a propellant because it was non toxic and it was a gas and it was great. And he had One a society of chemical industry award in 1937. For his invention, here's why it was bad. So remember back in the back when we were kids how they were talking about the whole of the ozone layer? Yeah. CFCs were the cause of that chlorofluorocarbons.
So why are we being told to not use our aerosol hairspray is anymore
because the air the propellant used in aerosol hairspray is was made of chlorofluorocarbons, and they're just being sprayed to the air. And they would make their way up to the ozone layer, which is about 25 miles above the surface of the earth, the CFCs through a chemical process called capitalization, breakdown ozone, which ozone is in the upper atmosphere and helps block solar radiation from making it to the surface of the earth. If that went away, there would be huge increases in skin cancer increases in cataracts. It would contribute a lot to global warming, and it would even inhibit crop growth, especially with rice because there are bacteria that helped us grow that are very sensitive to radiation and it could have just made rice go extinct. We first noticed this hole in the ozone layer in 1985 by NASA and that scientists thought this has to be a mistake. What the fuck is going on here? They started rerunning tests again, and it was still there. So they went back over old tests and old information they'd gathered and found that there had been a hole in the ozone layer since 1976, over Antarctica that we just hadn't noticed until 1985. Wow. At its peak, the hole in the ozone layer was 21.2 million square miles. That's a big number. That is a big number. That is a very big number that is a continental size of area.
I didn't realize it was so fast.
Oh, yeah, it was very fast. They said they took high, they took a sample of the atmosphere from the ionosphere and found very high levels of chlorofluorocarbons, and found out what it was doing to the ozone. They've determined that loads and layers were depleted all over the globe, except for in the tropics, because things are a little bit different there because high atmosphere stuff is weird, but there is low ozone layer everywhere. Where else on the globe? And again, leading to increased skin cancer and cataracts and just all sorts of bad nastiness. And shockingly, this is the amazing part for me. There was near immediate global action about this. Wow. Yeah. In 1987, they actually have the Montreal Protocol, which they were trying to phase out completely CFCs. And all manufacturer and use was phased out by 1996. Which I mean, that was nine years. But still, it's pretty fast for sub for a global initiative very fast. And it's actually worked. The whole the ozone layer is on its way to healing as of 2019. It's the smallest it's ever been. It is down to 3.9 to 6.3 million square miles. It's big, but that's a big difference. It's a big difference. It's going to be a slow recovery. It's going to take many, many years for it to completely recover, but it's been going more slowly than we thought it would. And that's because in 2013 we find out that there had been a 60% increase Some chloroform fluorocarbon emissions from China. And it could possibly if this increases, it could possibly undo all of the work that's been done. It's probably the reason why recovery has been 50% slower than expected. So it could be like done by now. Yeah, it could be done by now. But China, on China, dudes, that was chlorofluorocarbons were really bad. Midgley died in 1944. Because of one of his inventions. Ah, he had built a system of pulleys to put lift himself out of bed, and he got caught up in this system of pulleys and strangled by his own machine. Oh, no time magazine in their list of the 50 worst inventions of all time, listed both chlorofluorocarbons and tetra f OLED in its worst invention. Not his bad boy, not his bed pool. It only killed him. The others have killed thousands. It was up there with pestis, DDT, the baby cage and remember olestra they used it in potato chips for a while as a like, you know, fat substitute. Oh, Yeah, and it caused anal seepage.
Yeah, I do remember that.
So yeah, he was the only two for the list of the fifth I
had those chips. I did not have the anal linkage from them though.
You can still buy them on eBay. No, I'm good. They didn't taste good. I'll say another note on olestra it is now used as an industrial lubricant.
Unknown Speaker 25:23
Yay. Okay, so though did we completely banned things
Unknown Speaker 25:27
for having Freon in them?
What we have now is Freon is a different chemical that doesn't interact with us in this way. And it works as well as Freon did it's just a different chemical that doesn't get sprayed into the air and mess with the ozone layer.
Okay, I was confused because I was just looking at big trash pickup day stuff and it was like if it has Freon in it, you have to pay this amount to drop it off this different way. And I'm like talking about that as thinking. Are we having a legal Freon drops?
No. Yeah, Freon it's it's become kind of a term for any refrigerant. Okay, but yeah, we don't use chlorine. Like band aids are all the Yeah, all of the tickets, Astor's Oh God say, hey, Allied thing, but chemistry. Are you ready for some questions? Sure. Will atmospheric lead poisoning be on the test? Yeah. Will the largely successful long term fight of CFCs be on the test?
Unknown Speaker 26:19
Yeah, I think so. Cuz I remember how much we talked about the hole in the ozone layer as a kid. So good. I don't think we talk about it anymore. No, it's because it's been fixing itself largely. And it's, again, this has been a big environmental success,
but it's something we can't. That's one of the problems. We don't talk about things in schools, and then we do them again, because the kids never learned about them. Yeah, like things like this. If they're not learning about them. They might not realize what a big problem the whole ozone layer actually was. We don't teach aids education anymore. But like look at what happened in Indiana when Mike Pence was emperor over there.
And don't worry kids. He's in charge of the corona virus outbreaks. Oh geez. Hi, rice. So wash your hands. I really think we should Talk about the whole the ozone layer and how the entire world got together changed an industry innovated new ways of keeping things cold without using this chemical and fix the problem within a decade. That's remarkable
like and we all agreed climate, this is causing problems with climate and this is causing problems with people. And now we're like, global climate change. That sounds silly. This could
Well, so could that that's the thing. We go through these phases where we care more about business than we do about people. And for some reason, this one seemed to have actually go Oh, shit, let's sign up people. But now that the world could literally just light on fire. At some point. We're like, money.
Okay, will the link between lead exposure and poor outcomes be on the test?
I think it'll have to be at this point. Oh, that's, that's, that's a risky game to play too, though, because then people come in with preconceived notions that like if somebody came in and applied for a job suddenly we're from Flint, Michigan. That might lead to a preconceived notion about their abilities or level of violence. Yeah, that's a question. And yes, it's an important fact. But should we teach it Do we want to avoid these preconceived notions because obviously, if you're from Flint, Michigan, it doesn't mean you have a lower IQ or you're more prone to violence or that you are overall less healthy, it just means that you are more likely to have these issues because we aren't helping you.
And then of course, Flint Michigan is the only place with this lead in the water problem yet it's the most publicized
it is everywhere guys, like Google most lead in states are in cities. Flint isn't even number one and some of these lists No, I think it's St. Joseph Missouri maybe that I was looking at that had really high levels. I know Jefferson City has a lot I think they might have fixed I don't think it was on the most recent list I saw Okay, so
Unknown Speaker 28:50
and we got that fluoride in our water. We do government put nanobots in our brains, they're trying to make us more compliant but don't worry, we
got our guns we're gonna shoot Oh fluoride out of our water. And final question, Well, the fact that GM knew that leaded gas was a problem, and said to make it the next generations problem be on the test.
The first part could be on the test. The second part, absolutely not. We don't want to, we don't want to pretend that that's how we've kind of run things forever.
And it's it is how we've run things forever, and how we are running things now. And I'm fairly certain how things will be run in the future, unless something drastic and crazy happens.
Like you're allowed to do it to yourself and yourself alone. Like there have been times where I've been like, that's future Matty's problem, but if it wasn't something that would affect other people, that's not how that game gets played.
That was originally the worst inventor ever. Who has had a bigger impact on the atmosphere of the Earth than any other single organism?
I like that you put it that way like any other single organism. Yeah, cuz you know, we've got we've got like that one deer that runs through the woods and like, is destroying everything about it. But this guy's worse than that. I don't know what joke I'm trying to make right now. I'm so tired.
She's very tired. Poor Maddy,
this fucking daylight savings time, man I'm telling you my every year it messes with me the other way also messes with me. We just need to stop it. Think of those of us with sleep disorders guys
that that require thought you know, they're never gonna think Well,
I was looking at a comment section NPR article before I came up here.
Oh, oh good. So you were already fired up?
Well, you know, it never bothered me and I had children and we just got them up and I planned ahead. And so every night I started putting them to bed 15 minutes earlier, later, depending on which way it was going. And it didn't. I'm like, yeah, Judy, you're 7000 years old. You also stayed at home with your kids. And chances are they went to school at a more reasonable hour than we do. And your husband actually got to go to work at nine as opposed to six in the morning like teachers have to stop it. Your experience is not universal, nor is it modern. No, this isn't Leave it to Beaver. No. And Leave it to Beaver she would have been way more understanding about people who had struggles with daylight savings time. How long is daylight savings has been a thing. Why aren't we covering that this week?
I don't know. Because Daylight Savings Time is the worst wish, not acknowledging it or just not acknowledging
the acknowledgments we've already done.
Acknowledge we're not gonna acknowledge it. It's a it's not even funny. It's just stupid. Everything I've read about it is stupid. Like no one liked it, then no one likes it now. George Bush wanted to get rid of it, and people find him on it. And I don't agree with george bush on many things, but we should have fucking gotten rid of daylight savings time he was right. He was right
on people say we do it for the farmers. Well, I was one of the commenters was like, yeah, I'm a rancher. And this actually increases how dangerous My job is because the animals are not used to this new schedule, and they get upset in either direction. And with one of the daylight savings, I can't figure out how that works. Like I go out there and it is still pitch black which also increases the amount of danger to me Yeah,
one of my family members said it best is about Daylight Savings Time is doesn't help farmers. Cows don't tell time.
Unknown Speaker 32:07
Cats fucking do though.
Yeah, I'll say this one they didn't start bugging me until an hour later than usual but the other way when they're trying to wake me up at five in the morning and they're freaking the fuck out for two weeks. Daylight Saving times it's awful.
Oh girl for up here. Hi guys.
It must be they must think assigned to be fed. It's 312
right now, so it's not time to seven even but wasn't the only thing but look at this look all four. I'm showing like you guys can see them. Normally only the boys are up here. But we actually even have zubi and Gigi who I don't think has ever been up here. Well, I've recorded
know that they hear a voice and they get scared. That sounds like we're yelling. That's one of the boys come out here. It's like why are you guys fighting on the girls like we got a higher than fighting? Mm hmm. So what do you got for us this week?
All right. Well, today I am going to be talking about the Navajo Code Talkers. Ooh. And my sources are Wikipedia, American and And si.edu history Navy dot m i l history dot coda UK because the UK has better stuff on Native Americans than we do national ww museum.org and cnn.com. Wow. Yeah, there's a lot out there. So when we talk about the code talkers, especially the ones from World War Two because they were there in World War One, I did not know
I'm starting us off strong. We tend to call them a Navajo Code Talkers. However, that is not accurate. There were soldiers, both volunteers and drafted from different times and the codes came from 14 languages, including Comanche, Hopi, mask, walkie and Navajo, so they weren't just Navajo. They were from all these different tribes. And the language was not exclusively based on Navajo, just largely based on that though. So I'm starting off on brand new information here.
I will admit everything I know about this I learned from the Nicolas Cage movie. So what Nicolas Cage movie Well, you don't know there is a Navajo Code Talker. Nicolas Cage movie set in World War Two.
I mentioned a movie later on, but I didn't look at what it was.
It's a Nicolas Cage movie.
It's a Nicolas Cage movie when talkers or something. Yeah, that's the one. Yeah, that's, that's a big part of why we refer to them as Navajo Code Talkers, Nicolas Cage like, Well, I think they were called that then too, but he probably didn't bother to mention Oh, wait, not everybody here. The Navajo.
Nicolas Cage has never lied to me.
yet. He also actually switch faces with john travolta, he took his face off face Oh, and World War One, the Germans began to tap into the Allied phone lines and they had no trouble breaking their codes. There's even an apocryphal story of one of them jumping onto the phone line and calling them idiots basically saying, if you're gonna do this, you might as well just say exactly what it is. No one's was happening. The troops then tried to send people in person, but one fourth of them were captured. They looked at other methods of communication like different colored rockets and carrier pigeons, but they weren't fast enough or reliable enough. So the Germans are to learn about their tactics and plans ahead of time, then a commander her to his soldier speaking chapter to each other, and he suggested that Native Americans be brought in to see if their languages would serve to hide their plans because the Europeans had little to no reference for Native American languages. This was a completely outside of their realm thing, and it worked. So a group of 19 Choctaws completed a complete training session and created a code. But it wasn't used before the World War was ended. It was used on a more informal basis. Up until that point, they didn't have a rigid code, I think they might have just been speaking Choctaw to each other, and it did help them win several battles in France that led to the war's end, a German POW would say that their car their side couldn't figure out the language at all, and that it likely lead to the end of the war, at least in at least in part, but she also added that it was awfully ironic that we were telling these people to use their language to help us win a war while we were trying to stamp out their language. At home,
Oh, wow. Yeah, that's that's a thing we did. We did that.
It's worth noting that at the beginning of World War One Native Americans weren't even universally considered citizens. And we were still running boarding schools to kill off their culture and turn them into our versions of Americans. Yes, this is just about 100 years ago, we were told about these things happening in like the 1800s. Back when you know, it was so long ago doesn't matter. Oh, no, we were doing this to the MC mid 20th century. Despite all of this thousands, thousands of these non citizens whose culture we're trying to stamp out joined the war effort in World War One with over 12,000 of them, which was about a quarter of the entire male Native American population. Wow. Yeah. Then we get to World War Two, which is willing more think about these guys. We had about 44,000 out of 350,000 Native American men and women serving or about 13% of the entire Native American population, a world war one veteran named Philip Johnston and heard about the Choctaw Nation. On squad from World War One, so he and he had grown up in a reserve basically they knew that the that the phone thing had been happening in world war one and then a guy named Phillip Johnston had heard about this telephone squad. He had grown up in a reservation despite not being Native American. And he was like, hey, so Navajo, the language they probably won't get maybe we should try this this time. So they started with the army they began to recruit Native Americans from variety of tribes including Comanche, Choctaw, Hopi Cherokee, Chippewa, Oneida, and met squawky. And in 1941 42, they focused more on Navajo with a special focus on recruiting from Oklahoma because we were super awesome and just sent people there at one point, I don't know much about that. No, no. The recruited people were simply told that they were being recruited not why because the mission was secret, and they record it recruited 29 Navajos to develop a code in about two weeks. That's how fast that code was gonna get expanded upon later on, but In the beginning, they developed an alphabetic code and then 211 words that meant something specific. Okay, working together the Navajos, comanches Hopis and misc walkies Delta code based on the languages. The first code was the one from the initial 29 Navajos who created that alphabetic code, they can look them up Navajo word for each letter of the English alphabet largely using simple things like animals since the codes would have to be memorized. Ultimately, based on declassified documents, they had three separate words for each letter. So for a, we had valachi, which meant and we had Belle Sena, which meant apple and C know, which meant x. And they could use any one of those things as the letter A to further for a lot of the people who might
Oh, that's really smart. Yeah, because like a simple alphabet code, if they keep using the same thing over and over again, can get broken, but if they're just using random, like, it could be any one of these three for everything. That's really hard to break.
Like they did that for all letters of the alphabet, and it's really
hard to break.
So They'll be used to spelled out sent messages. So if I wanted you to call AAA I could say something like well Laci belts on its email and you would know AAA. And you the translator and receiver would write the words like I said and then and translate them into English because it would take forever to sola communicate this way. There was also code two words that were commonly used were given a Native American word to be used instead. So words are commonly used in military service. And there were words that was everything from like just a standard verb, or even things like at and or had a specific word that was used instead of spelling them out. Sometimes there are direct translations sometimes they had pretty close meaning sometimes that are pretty close sound, some of them seemed completely random, because not everything that's in the military would translate directly into a Navajo word. For instance, they didn't have a word for submarine, but they did have the words for iron and fish. So they combined them to make submarine they also had one that I thought was really interesting was and like I said, I don't speak Native American In any Native American language, so porcine, which was a word that they use for Battalion, but literally meant red soil like the red soil after a fight. That's how I interpreted that anyway. So their red soil meant Battalion, well battalions tend to get killed. Yeah. So I thought that was a really interesting choice. For months. They were usually related to the weather or the season of planting that was in that month, but February they used was chained, which meant squeaky voice why I have no idea. And then the ones that were that four words that kind of sounded like the word they're trying to say. There was be sittin, which meant, dear Les, which was the code for delay. And there was another one for dear liver standing in for deliver. I think that's really clever. Yeah, but we don't have the exact words. So here's the thing that sounds kind of like it that we can use instead and knowing something like that would help them memorize. After the code was created, the core created a code talking school. Ultimately, there were somewhere between 304 hundred Navajo Code Talkers. So not just those 29 original ones, but somewhere between 304 hundred, after completing basic training and communications plus having to memorize the code. All in all, there were 17 pages of code, over 600 different words they had to know. And you can't carry a code book with you all had to be memorized, oh, man, you can find the entire list on history.navy.mil. But just like Google, type that into Google, and then type Code Talker, because the rest of the website title or website search box thing is really long. So if you just type that in and then type in code talk, you'll get directly to it. during battle, they were given the messages in the English, as the majority of those who pass them along did not speak the language. They didn't have to take the message, translate it into those seven 10 pages of code they've memorized they were sometimes given the message written down in English, which of course, they destroy afterwards. But they would not write down the translation at any point, they had to just translate it on the fly as they went through and they had to make it as short a translation as possible. So they would not only translate it, but they translate it quickly, shortly and without writing it down. According to john Brown Jr, one of the code talkers they also in the shortest possible the recipient would then translate it and write it directly back into English at no point would they write it in the in the code either they would translate it directly into English and a lot book so cool. Carl Gorman, one of the 29 original recruits explained that they were able to memorize their book so quickly, because their language had never been written in the first place. So they always had to memorize it, in a way always shared it just verbally, so they never had to get into this idea of writing down their own words. They always just had to memorize their own. He ultimately got malaria after serving in four major battles, but continued to fight for Two years worth of malaria. Oh, until he was evacuated and treated for both malaria and what they then called shell shock what would probably call PTSD now, so code talkers, we're not just sitting in some room somewhere translating the messages from safety. They were frequently on the battlefield and in fact couldn't even hide during enemy fire like the other soldiers could because they had to be available to send and receive messages. But what was actively going on the Navajo and Hopi were in the Pacific fighting Japan, which is possibly the most dangerous of the areas because the Japanese specifically tight targeted people like code talkers, if you had a radio they were targeting you. The comanches were in Europe versus the Germans and the misc walkies were in North Africa. Other groups were split pretty evenly among them. They not only had to know how to use and maintain their radio equipment, but they had to carry it on their backs as they traveled. Oh, those were not like, you know, they went into the military things and they which can be handed a gun and kind of get the idea that this might have been harder in 2000 for the National Museum. The American Indian interviewed a number of code doc talkers for Samso before they before the sixth fleet invasion of Isla Jima because they were a major part of your Jima, this entire code talking thing your Jima would not have worked without them remembers his officer telling all the people on board that they need to pray to whatever belief system they followed. And in fact, in many of the code talkers never been allowed to pray to their own religion. They weren't nobody tried to stop them on like, now we're we're like only one religion. And he said that a number of young kids joined him and the way he phrased it, I kind of think it wasn't just other Native American kids, it was somebody who was looking for someone to give them an idea that it was going to be okay. So they went to Sam who had to this corn powder he was using and was doing this whole prayer that probably looked like it actually really meant something to him. And I think that's what people will be drawn to more than just, you know, silently sitting and praying and especially if they were starting to lose any faith they might have had because they're about to go die
Unknown Speaker 44:58
and all of their friends
are dead and absolute just like heavily defended meat grinder of a fight.
Yeah, another soldier Charles Djibouti, one of the 17 command cheat code talkers was at Utah Beach in Normandy on D day, he said he absolutely would not do it again. But if they decided to bring this back, he would gladly have taught kids the young people how to use the language for the code. Frank sanchi squawky cold Code Talker was even taken as a POW and it was later stated by marine signal officer major on Howard Connor that work not for the Navajos. The Marines would never have taken you on Jima basically there's no way we would have succeeded in this war. We're not for the code talkers. If I learned about them in school it was a passing mention at that
Yeah, an extra page there's like the little like little corner thing little corner thing it's like like it's like a paragraph and it's just kind of off to the side it's all thing it's like this happened to Yeah, and it wasn't on the test was not on test. It
was never even like the little corner things are often not even mentioned in class. We just love
them. I would I would read it because I read faster than everyone else in my class. I'm bragging. And I'd like to say I will read these because I can't bring out an actual book. I have to sit here while everyone's reading can be bored.
But funny is just the other day we are watching that episode of Brooklyn nine nine where Captain Holt and Amy are in a speed reading competition. And Austin knows that I'm at Santiago. Yes. And I was talking to Austin like God, you read so slow, I always have to like hold my phone up to you for 10 times longer than it takes me to read something because you're shaking it in front of my face. I'm not shaking it you can also hold the phone yourself and you don't takes you so long to read things. Now I'm bragging. Yeah, I read super fast. They. Anyway, we were never really taught about this in no small part because it wasn't even declassified until 1968. Which might mean a lot of our own teachers never really learned about them. And you don't tend to teach about things that you use. Don't know about they weren't even allowed to really tell their families what they'd been doing in the war. Just in case you wanted to use this code again in the future, then we skip ahead to 2000. A couple of little things have been done for them between 1968 and 2000. But nothing really major December 21 2000, Bill Clinton awarded the Congressional Medal gold medal to the original 29 World War Two Navajo Code Talkers, and silver medals to each person who ultimately qualified as a Code Talker, which is around 300 people. Now when I say Navajo Code Talkers, I mean, he awarded them to the Navajos,
none of the others.
That's kind of how I understand it based on what happened. The following year, George W. Bush presented those medals. So they were awarded and he presents them to four people, five total of the original 29 were still alive and one of them couldn't be there. So for people, they'd waited that long. So everybody's dead. The other 24 gold medals were given to the surviving family members. In 2006. The Healthy cocoa talkers were finally recognized in a documentary for the Smithsonian, and in 2007. The Choctaw were given recognition, but they were literally all dead. 100% of them had died already. And they were given the Texas Medal of Valor. In 2008. Bush awarded that Congressional Gold Medal to any Code Talker from World War One or two or World War Two, who had not already gotten one basically one who was not a Navajo Code Talker, and silver duplicates were sent to the code talkers or their next of kin. Now I don't really understand what that all means. My guess is that they had a few like honorary ones and they sent silver duplicates just because they were cheaper, because there were we're talking 300 to 400 people in the area or there next of kin in 2017. You might remember this, because it's real nice because Trump is president. three remaining it Navajo Code Talkers and the president of the Navajo Nation Russell Russell Begay went to the Oval Office with Trump for a ceremony to pay tribute to the code talkers. And the Executive Director of the National Congress of American Indians talked about the high level of military service that Native Americans have undergone. There were no members of the Choctaw Nation alive to see this, nor were any of their children alive. We waited so long that the entirety of the Choctaw code talkers were dead, and the entirety of their children were dead. That's how long we waited to recognize these people. So obviously, during this event, Trump use Pocahontas as a derogatory term to refer to Elizabeth Warren. Of course he did, which is why you may remember him being insulting in front of Native American people, but you not might not remember what the ceremony was.
I've given up on trying to remember every single stupid thing he's done. It's impossible. It is much more than so
Qantas think not about the ceremony that was supposed to honor though just
every day. Like every time the President has stuck his foot in his mouth over something just completely stupid. That's like, extra dumb.
Yeah, this was supposed to honor these people, many of whom died without whom the war would not have won. And he decides to say, quote, I want to thank you because you are very, very special people. You were here long before any of us were here. Although we have representative in Congress who has been here a long time longer than you. They call her Pocahontas. So first of all, I think he's saying that Elizabeth Warren is immortal. She is the
Yes. But you're literally using this time to use a racially driven insult about someone.
Yeah. And it's like, it's much like everything he does. It's like you tell us like, oh, he was trying to tell a joke, but he doesn't understand humor. He is too stupid for humor.
racism. That's what this is because then he turned to one of the code talkers because They're obviously behind him during the ceremony about them. But you know what? I like you, you are special people. So basically saying I don't like Native Americans General, but I guess you guys are okay. What makes an insult even worse is that they were trying to impress upon him how many Native Americans had served in the military over the years, most without being drafted. Most of them fucking volunteered. This is important because we literally took their homes from from them, even if they had allied with us prior to that, like the Choctaw did in the war. 1812 after the war, we're like, cool, give us your land. No it but we helped you. Okay, give us your land. Keep helping us. That's great. We relocated thousands upon thousands of people leaving thousands of them dead during the Trail of Tears. And yet they still joined our military
Trail of Tears. Another thing we gloss over in school.
Unknown Speaker 51:54
I remember learning a little more about it because I think Oklahoma was more involved and they couldn't really leave it out. Oh man, we just like we And of course, Andrew Jackson, like the
supreme court saying, No, you can't like forcibly leacock relocate these American citizens. And Andrew Jackson says, watch me punks. And he did it anyway, because Andrew Jackson's a sociopath.
And so we've done all of this to these people. And this a big part of us was saying, look, America, look how much our people have done to serve you. In spite of all the ways you've heard us and Trump use this as an opportunity to insult them. He may think he was insulting Elizabeth Warren, but he was doing so using one of their historical figures.
Not even one of these were like, what these were chopped off.
This was I think, everybody This was everybody. Okay,
so yeah, it's like it might not even have been one of their historical figures, because
I'm like, this is this was when talking about all of the different generation, all of the different military people, all the people who've been involved with the code talkers and military service in general. So I don't think there's been a single tribe that was involved in some way.
Yeah, it's slowly like The way we treat all Native American tribes as the same, even though that'd be like saying, Oh yes, the great Italian hero, Queen Elizabeth the first.
And then this is where I mentioned that the 2000 film wind talkers is a big reason why we only think about the novel has been involved. Yeah. And you already took the very we didn't bury the lead. We on earth believe very early in that
Unknown Speaker 53:20
Nicolas Cage movie basically
it boils down to though because it's in pop culture as Navajo we only think of Navajo people. This was thousands of people overall, hundreds specifically involved with this from a variety of different tribes.
And it wasn't even that kind of a movie. Like it's a Nicolas Cage movie.
Wait, oh God, he doesn't play Native American, does he?
No, no, he plays the white officer.
Unknown Speaker 53:43
It is a weird mix of war movie and white savior movie.
Yeah, sounds about right. The last of the original 29, who developed the code at Chester nez died in 2014. Four of the nine remaining talkers died in 2019. Who had gone on to become a New Mexico State Senator died in 2019 while still in office and to have died already this year. That means that there are only two remaining code talkers. As of the time we're recording. This really draws into sharp relief, how many of them died before any kind of recognition of their accomplishments were doled out in the first place? And that is the Navajo Code Talkers or the Native American code talkers, or as I saw them on most places there apparently, they're still officially the American Indian code talkers. So I'm just going to take the code talkers, the code talkers, although we've used a variety of languages over the years for codes. This is when we're talking about code talkers, people know who you're talking about.
Yeah, man. Bummer. Yeah. As a country. Oh, we are very bad at recognizing minorities when they do something heroic. And this is yet another one of those cases.
Yeah, even in these, like, everything I was reading made a point of pointing out the white guy who was like, you know, what might be a great idea. Like, you know, you guys could have done it. Just look at your records from the first time as an NGO. Oh, wait. As opposed to waiting for a white guy to suggest it again, but Okay, anyway, will the fact that the code and code talkers represented several tribes beyond the test? Yes. Will the fact that we likely would not have taken ujima without them beyond the test?
No, because we have to talk about those Medal of Honor winners that we always hear about.
Not though you're holding the Medal of Honor winners, but it's like we want we want to talk. They're not the only ones who were there. Yeah.
We're gonna show the guys putting the flag on the hill and talk about a couple of guys who won the Medal of Honor and then we're moving on.
Yep. Well, the fact that we were trying to eradicate their language at home, but using it to our advantage in battle at the same time beyond the test,
oh, no, you cannot show hypocrisy in school. And that
is the kind of talkers,
we have some, like weird bummers. But our usual bummers of genocides is only tangentially genocide but like
light diet genocide
genocide light hmm with that with a estra
What's going on here? What? It looks like you're having an allergic reaction.
Oh, that's where this basically zombie likes to wake me up by clawing at my arm. That's where zubi likes to clot my arm that was not waking up this morning for her. So yeah, um, I she gets skin rashes, I get attacked by cats.
Well, I think the cats might understand that I'm allergic to them. I'm allergic to their saliva, their dander and their urine. So if a cat decides to neat on me and it goes into the skin at all that means I'm getting a little bit of cat urine in my skin and it just swo so they're very good to me about it. Yeah,
yeah. So what we're saying is to whatever dermatologist is listening to our podcast, gold mine gold mine just like like you could probably get in contact with us somehow and say, Hey, I will look at your skin give me money.
I will advertise you on my shelf. He let look at my skin for free.
Yeah. Whoo. So we're we're if we're could this person dermatologist Come Come contact us.
Well they could find this on the Twitter's at on the test pod on Instagram at on the test pod at facebook, facebook, facebook, it's really chickens are just about to say it's facebook.com slash on the test pod or on the test pod.com
I thought Facebook was when you played the organ by smashing your face into the keyboard. It did. Well I was laughing too hard you interrupted me.
Well, I've had a thought that you've lost the trail of the joke and so I was trying to save you
never I never lose the trail of the joke except like for the five times I've done it this episode.
Yeah, man, this daylight savings time. We're not at the top of our game. We're not
Unknown Speaker 57:42
even that good to begin with.
Hey, I think we're really good. And that's why you all need to rate review and subscribe, tell your friends and actually download it. I've found that my numbers go up better if the thing is downloaded. So download it. Even apparently Do it right away even though you shouldn't I know you want to download it. And I'm sorry to all of my other podcasts that I listened to that I don't download first cuz I didn't know that that mattered.
I always download that just because like the Wi Fi is spotty at work.
Well, I don't have a whole lot of a lot else to say. There's a lot exciting going on right now. Not really. I mean, I think what next week is St. Patrick's Day. We're doing anything for that.
Maybe I'm wearing going anywhere.
No, that's a wacko anything for St. Patrick's Day. It's just I'm
allergic to beer. you're allergic to alcohol, and I hate the color green. And we
all we we also don't like people and crowds and crowds of people.
That is very true. So I guess on that note, Class dismissed.
Transcribed by https://otter.ai